1. Equable Climate:
This climate is characterised by lack of seasonality. It means that there is little fluctuation in temperature and precipitation. Central Africa (Sudan, Chad, Niger) and Northern South America (Brazil) have this kind of climate.
2. Desert Climate:
In such a climate zone the precipitation to evaporation remains very low. Temperatures may vary seasonally, but precipitation remains low for the whole year. Vegetation is typically small shrubs, succulents, and ephemerals. The Deserts in California (Mojave), Southern Arizona (Sonoran) and in other continents have this type of climate.
3. Polar Climate:
Such areas have a cool summer and very cold winter. Summer temperature remains below 10 degree Celsius. High mountain alpine areas and the tundra in North America and Asia have this kind of climate.
4. Mediterranean Climate:
This climate enjoys a cool, wet winter with a moderately warm, dry summer. This climate is found around middle latitudes. This climate favours evergreen woody shrubs with broad leaves.
5. Continental Climate:
This climate shows large differences in temperatures between the warmest and the coldest months. Several temperature and precipitation variations occur within the climate type, which result into different kinds of vegetation. The interiors of North America and Eurasia have continental climates.
6. Tropical Wet and Dry Climate:
South-Eastern Asia, Central Africa, India, Northern Australia, and parts of South America share this kind of climate. This climatic zone is characterised by high temperatures throughout the year, with sharply defined wet and dry periods.
Precipitation remains different during different months. Freezing temperatures occur only on high mountain areas. Since rainfall varies considerably, the tropical forests dominate most landscape, where the rainfall is over 1140 mm of precipitation.
Knowledge of the climatic history of various parts of world will be invaluable for international business people for their future planning. Though it can’t be said that past pattern shall be repeated, it is certain that the climate in a particular area will fluctuate and finally change if enough time passes.
During the past 20 years, there has been growing concern that the Earth’s climate is becoming warmer because of human activities. Acid precipitation, ozone depletion, and desertification are other climatic problems which offer opportunities as well as threats to international business.