There in attaining success against the Indian kings.

There was no harmony among them. Hence they failed to form a joint forum against the common enemy and were defeated one after the other.

Best Military Organization of Mahmood:

The army of Mah­mood was well organized. The cavalry formed the major portion of the army and all of his soldiers were well equipped. Mahmood Ghazni was himself a very good general and he commanded his forces efficiently.

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He was expert in the art of warfare and his reserve army always proved useful to him. Moreover, Mahmood was a very good orator; he often injected new spirit in his soldiers when he found them disheartened. The spirit of Jihad also helped him in getting success against the Indian rulers.

Lack of Nationalism Patriotism among Hindus:

The people of India did not have the militant feeling of nationalism and patriotism among themselves. Several Hindus instead of doing any good to their country supported the foreign invader and gave out the secrets of their country. Their treacherous attitude helped the ruler of Ghazni in attaining success against the Indian kings. The cowardly policy of Rajyapala, Ganda and Bhim Deva proved fatal for India.

Religious Enthusiasm:

There was great religious zeal and enthu­siasm among the soldiers of Mahmood, whereas the armies of India lacked in such vigour. The Muslims were prepared to sacrifice their lives for the sake of their religion and were prepared to do anything on the command of Mahmood.

They considered their battle a Jihad and fought gallantly. The Hindus did not have such feelings. They were themselves divided into different religions and creeds and sub­jected to mutual jealousies and differences.

Personal Virtues of Mahmood:

Mahmood was a born soldier, fearless crusader, courageous and resourceful. Historians have put him in the category of the finest generals due to his strange virtues and wonderful ability. He seldom lost a battle due to his efficient command.

All the contemporary historians and later historians have praised him for his war tactics. S. M. Jafar has written, “He was endowed with a genius for war. He was a scientific general, skilful in planning and thorough ‘in execution “Really all these qualities helped him in achieving success in India.