20th Century Industrialization Project Research GuideDue Date: January 26Directions: Individually you will be picking a country that industrialized after World War 2 and investigating how it Industrialized, what that has meant for the area and what the future looks like for that country. Procedure: complete the following steps to complete the research guide in helping with the completion of the whole projectWhat is the history of Industrialization in this country? What factors prevented your country from industrializing earlier? What types of industries is your country known for? Research:The Taiwanese industrialization is popular called the “Taiwan miracle” because of its unexpectedness and rapid growth. Taiwan’s industrialization was first triggered when Taiwan was a Japanese colony, with agriculture and farming the main focus of the taiwanese people. After the World War II, Taiwan transferred to Sheng Kai Shek’s Republic of China, changing from one colonial regime to another. Chinese rule was considered worse than the Japanese administration. The indigenous people, the Taroko people, remember that Japanese police officers learned the Taroko language in order to communicate with the locals, but on the other hand, the Kuomintang forced the natives to assimilate and conduct their lives in only Mandarin. The ROC focused on making Taiwan develop economically. Their first plan was to make the agricultural based economy into a manufacturing economy. In July 1949, the ROC government also implemented an import substitution policy, which made the island self-sufficient in manufacturing goods. Taiwan’s agricultural based economy prevented it from industrializing because the agricultural economy was not booming and did not develop well during the era before WWII. Taiwan is known for and developed through the textile and apparel manufacturing industry. It allows great economic growth in developed countries and because the textile and apparel manufacturing industry is labor-intensive, and developing countries don’t have sufficient skill in labor to flourish in the industry. Taiwan later became a man-made fiber industry, through the government’s assistance. Between 1950 and 1980, the number of factories in Taiwan increased from 5,623 to 42,474. This increase was concentrated in several industries. In the early 1960s, the boom was food processing, which compromised over 70% of manufacture exports. In the 1970s, Taiwan moved onto the modern industries, and its most rapid growth occurred with the electronic industry, more specifically the consumer electronic industry. Also, the consumer electronics industry thrived in Taiwan, with the industry of radios and television being rampant in the 60s and 70s. Citations:Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). Taiwan Today, taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=8%2C8%2C29%2C32%2C32%2C45.McDonnell, Finbar. “The Taiwan Economic Miracle.” TCD, www.tcd.ie/Economics/assets/pdf/SER/1988/The%20Taiwan%20Economic%20Miracle%20By%20Finbar%20McDonnell.pdf.How and why did the country move into the industrial age? What strategy did your country choose? Why? What areas of of the country is industry/factories located? Research:The country moved into the industrial age because the government used three policies to have the industrialization process take off, price stabilisation, land reform, and the placement of a basic infrastructure. The strategy Taiwan chose was to forcefully start an industrialization through the government, because Taiwan did not hold many resources, so it’s only opportunity to industrialize was through changes in the government. During 1953, as Taiwan began economic construction plans, the urbanization process rapidly accelerated. Cities such as Taipei became growing spots for companies, factories, and businesses. Citation:Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). Taiwan Today, taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=8%2C8%2C29%2C32%2C32%2C45.Tsai, Pan Long. “Explaining Taiwan’s Economic Miracle: Are the Revisionists Right?” Pressfiles, 1 May 1999, press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p94971/pdf/article07.pdf.Liao, C H. “Urbanization in Taiwan: 1900-1985.” In’gu Munje Nonjip = Journal of Population Studies., U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 1988, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12222433.What does the country look like today? (Data, graphs, and images should be used to describe) Is the country an economic power or an emerging economic power? How has this changed over time? Is it an NIC (Newly Industrializing Country)? How has the industrialization affected the citizens’ lives. Research:Taiwan is an economic power and has been since the 1970’s. Taiwan is considered a Newly Industrialized country, as being part of the Asian Tigers, others including South Korea and Hong Kong. In the early 1950’s the Taiwanese economy was awful, with an extremely low GDP per capita, and the economy had recently experience hyperinflation. Also, a majority of the land was half by a small portion o the population. Industrialization has changed to evolve Taiwan into a more stabilized society and economy. It affected the lives of the citizens by increasing the quality of life and moving the industry to become more mechanical instead of agricultural. Now labor involves working in factories and working machines instead of farming and other agricultural labor. Citation:Taiwan Industrialization, webs.bcp.org/sites/vcleary/modernworldhistorytextbook/industrialrevolution/ireffects.html.What does the future look like for the country and its industrialization? Is manufacturing remaining in the country, or have they shifted it to cheaper labor markets?Research:The future of Taiwan has bright side , as it has recently been experiencing rapid increases in world trade relations, productivity, and the advancement of product quality and sales of products. However, Taiwan has been ending the development process. The conditions in Taiwan were perfect in order to industrialize, showing other LEDC’s how difficult it is to industrialize. Manufacturing has remained in the markets of Taiwan, still focusing on electronics, ships, machinery, and textiles. Citation:”The Economic History of Taiwan.” EHnet, eh.net/encyclopedia/the-economic-history-of-taiwan/.McDonnell, Finbar. “The Taiwan Economic Miracle.” TCD, www.tcd.ie/Economics/assets/pdf/SER/1988/The%20Taiwan%20Economic%20Miracle%20By%20Finbar%20McDonnell.pdf.What have been the costs of industrialization for your country? Focus on issues such as environmental (ex: pollution created by factories), social concerns (ex: Chinese leaving children back on the farm to be raised by grandparents), corruption, foreign dominance, living conditions (quality of life), income distribution, etc.Research:First of all, working conditions were very poor at the start of the industrialization, because of the unbalance between the rich and poor. Also, foreign investments were too impactful in the economy. Low wages for labor forces also became a large problem from the rapid industrialization. Recently, there also have been many problems with the pollution because of the building of nuclear power plants. A major cost of the industrialization was the conflict created between the indigenous people, the Taroko, and the Chinese. The Taroko especially struggled with land rights, which was lost as the the Republic of China took over Taiwan and its land. Citation:McDonnell, Finbar. “The Taiwan Economic Miracle.” TCD, www.tcd.ie/Economics/assets/pdf/SER/1988/The%20Taiwan%20Economic%20Miracle%20By%20Finbar%20McDonnell.pdf.”The Underside of a Miracle: Industrialization, Land, and Taiwan’s Indigenous Peoples.” Cultural Survival, www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/underside-miracle-industrialization-land-and-taiwans.How has the employment structure/labor force changed over time? Have education strategies evolved to support this change?Research:Since the industrialization, the labor force is more educated than ever before. The proportion of the population with degrees has increased from 4% to 12% in 1968. Also, the quality of education was been improved and vocational schools have been better equipped with their coordination with the industry actively implemented and planned. Citation:McDonnell, Finbar. “The Taiwan Economic Miracle.” TCD, www.tcd.ie/Economics/assets/pdf/SER/1988/The%20Taiwan%20Economic%20Miracle%20By%20Finbar%20McDonnell.pdf.What role has government played in either assisting or hindering industrialization?Research: The government is completely responsible for the starting of the Taiwan industrialization. . The government triggered the industrialization with three methods, price stabilization, land reforms, and the establishment of a basic infrastructure. Price stabilization first included the devaluing of the Taiwan currency from 40,000 to 1. Many stabilization policies were implemented, such as a basic infrastructure. Land reforms restructured the entire agricultural industry, boosting productivity and allowing the influx of the industrial work of farmers after 1962. Land reforms were carried out by the government in three stages; rent reduction, the sale of public land to tenant farmers to 156,000 tenant families at a fixed price that is 2.5 times the annual crop price, and the establishment of a limit to individual land holdings, dispossessing large farmers. Also, the setting of a basic infrastructure, which was aided by the US and went to financing government deficits.Citation:McDonnell, Finbar. “The Taiwan Economic Miracle.” TCD, www.tcd.ie/Economics/assets/pdf/SER/1988/The%20Taiwan%20Economic%20Miracle%20By%20Finbar%20McDonnell.pdf.Student Research Question #1 What lessons can be learned from the Taiwan IndustrializationResearch:One way the Taiwan Miracle is significant is shows that countries that need a good source of resources to develop or industrialize, because Taiwan lacked resources, but still industrialized into a powerhouse country through changes made by the government. However, The Taiwan Miracle is also a testament to how difficult it is to achieve success. Many conditions had to be right and perfect in Taiwan to industrialize, many of which is extremely rare in other countries.Citation:McDonnell, Finbar. “The Taiwan Economic Miracle.” TCD, www.tcd.ie/Economics/assets/pdf/SER/1988/The%20Taiwan%20Economic%20Miracle%20By%20Finbar%20McDonnell.pdf.Student Research Question #2 How was Taiwan able to industrialize so rapidlyResearch:Taiwan industrialized in a short amount of time because the government implement policies and changes in the basic infrastructure that had an almost immediate effect on the economy and society. One key characteristic of the Taiwanese industrialization was the ability to change and successfully adapt to new economic and political conditions. The combination of policy factors and economic structures enabled Taiwan to carry out high successful adaptations. Citation: Tsai, Pan Long. “Explaining Taiwan’s Economic Miracle: Are the Revisionists Right?” Pressfiles, 1 May 1999, press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p94971/pdf/article07.pdf.”The Underside of a Miracle: Industrialization, Land, and Taiwan’s Indigenous Peoples.” Cultural Survival, www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/underside-miracle-industrialization-land-and-taiwans.