1. Concluding Comments………………. References………………. Appendix……………… TABLE OF CONTENT

1.     
Introduction…………………………..
1.1  The Research Background………………….
1.2  Problem of the Statement ………………………
1.3  The study Delimitation…………
1.4  The study Objectives……………………………
1.5  Questions of Research
1.6  Significance of the study
2.     
Literature
review………………………
2.1 The State of Mind towards English Dialect…………….
         2.2 Varieties of English language
         2.3 Different Views about the term of
World   “Englishes“……..
         2.4 English Language in Pakistan………
        2.5 The status of English language in
Pakistan……….
        2.6 The present study…………………….
  3.   Research
Methodology
          3.1 Research Pattern……………..
            3.2 Population……………..
            3.3 Sample…………………
            3.4 Data Collection…………..
            3.5 Research Instrument………….
            3.6 Procedures………………
    4   Data
Analysis…………………………………….           
   5    Conclusion……………………..
          5.1 Finding……………………….
           5.2 Recommendations…………………..
           5.3 Concluding Comments……………….   
           References……………….
          Appendix………………
        

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENT

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Abstract

Determining the nature of non native diversity of English
relies on, economical, geographical, sociolinguistic and political factors than
merely on linguistic foundation. Therefore, the varieties towards intra-national
and international varieties are considered main issues in explaining the status
of language. Many researchers have been discussed by the status of Pakistani
English, Kachru (1982, 1985, 1987,) Rahman (2002) Baumgardner(1993),
Khalique(2006) and ghani (2003) etc. There are many studies towards the
attitudes of English but there are a few researches on Pakistani variety of
English. This research emphasize on the thought of English language learners
towards the status of Pakistani English. A survey of questionnaire of thirty
participants was held with focal point on their feelings towards Pakistani English.
The participants were BA English Literature students of different colleges. The
result of this survey shows that the students of colleges have both positive
and negative attitudes towards Pakistani English.

 

1.   
Introduction

1.1          
The
Research Background

In seventeenth century English
dialect was introduced in the subcontinent by the British people. In present
days, English dialect gets the status of reliable dialect in Pakistan, both
Urdu and English dialects guarantee the position of authority dialect.
According to Baumgardner(n.d), the status of English in Pakistan is that the charter
and body of the law are approved in English. In Pakistan English has great
place. All economical information and temperate, invention are available in
English.

In the 1990 century some people
realized that the mixture of English language which they are speaking in
Pakistan is divided from different collections of English which they named as
Pakistani English, PE or Pinglish. Really Pakistani English or Pinglish is the
accumulating English dialect mixture which are spoken and written in
Pakistan.  Pakistan English has no less
than four particular assortments, named as, Anglicized Pakistani English,
acrolect (talked by explusure class), reselect (utilized by white colour
class), and (advertise English utilized by un educated class) (Rahman 1999).
Pakistani English recently accepted as independent core among other non local
admixture of English language. This is close to the British English than
whatever other assortment of English. Notwithstanding, there are certain similarities
in the segmental and non segmental parts of pronunciation which should be beak knowledge
as the particular attribute of this assortment. Pakistani English has comprised
its own semantic hypothesis and culture that does not make it sub –part in the
comparison with British Standard English. Rahman (1999) researched the
sociolinguistic variety in Pakistani English with an emphasis on phonology,
sentence structure, morphology, and lexis. The informed assortment of Pakistani
English has progressed over a time detained use in academic, regulatory,
authorized business and discretionary circles of national life in Pakistan
(Hague 2003).

 

 

1.2          
Statement
of the problem

The people in Pakistan have different
attitude towards Pakistani English. Many students have positive attitude
towards Pakistani English. This research tells about the Pakistani English and
the attitude of university students towards it.

 

1.3          
Delimitation
of the study

The present study is implicated
with Pakistani English. It is delimited to the attitude of college students.
Furthermore it is delimited to the attitudes to students who want to learn
English as a foreign language.

 

1.4          
Objective
of the study

            The objectives
of the study research are:

Ø       To check the fluency in utilized of
Pakistani English by the students.

Ø       To check the attitudes towards Pakistani English
of the college students

 

1.5          
Research
question

            The
questions of research study are:

Ø       What are attitude of college students
towards Pakistani English?

Ø      Why colleges use Pakistani English more
than the Standard English?

 

1.6          
Significance
of the study

           This
research gives us information about the English dialects of Pakistani
community.                    The research reveals about the
English language variety and its status in Pakistan. It reveals the students
attitude towards English language.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.1 Research pattern:

The researcher adopted the qualitative method for research. This
was adopted according to the nature of research questions. The aim of this
research was to know the attitude of the university students towards Pakistani
English , effect of research on the readers, and the people’s knowledge of
Pakistani English. For this purpose qualitative design is suitable.

 

3.2 Population:

The population was taken from various universities of Lahore. Such
as University of Education, NUML LHR and LUMS University of Lahore. The
researcher selected the students of English Department for investigation.

 

Sample

The researcher collected the sample form the students of M.A
English of there universities. He selected 30 students 10 from each university.
The sample was collected randomly. The participants belonged to various cities
and towns , because they were speaker of various languages such as Panjabi ,
Urdu, sindhi, Pashto and saraiki so they were multilingual.

 

 Data collection.

The Researcher adopted the questionnaire technique for data
collection. This questionnaire indicated various features of Pakistani English.
Pakistani English has a lot of similarity with British English. These questions
were made of different lexical items and sentence structure to know the variation
in pronunciation   of the different words
in Pakistani English.

Research Tool:

The research instruments play a vital role in good research.
Appropriate research tool is necessary for good research. So the researcher
took the tool of questionnaire which was consisted of various open-ended
questions. The researcher took the different questions from the book, “Remaking
of English in Pakistan.” By Dr Riaz Hassan.

 

 

Procedures:

Various questions were given to the students of English Department,
and they choose various options. As question no 15-20 were about pronunciation
of various words. The researcher recorded the pronunciation of various students
about different words, when they uttered.

 

Data Analysis

The purpose of the questionnaire was to know the attitude of the
various university students towards Pakistani English, they were given to
different respond-dents questions randomly. With the help of these questions,
The researcher drawn a comparison between Pakistani English and British
English. The following tables indicate the result of the research such as (
4.1.1,  4.2.1,  4.3.1, 
4.4.1) 15 different open ended question were given to the respondents.
The respondents choose one option regarding each question as a result the
researcher got an idea, that how many university students used pakistani
English in their spoken and written language, He put four types of question.

1.     
Question
related to vocabulary items.

2.     
Question based
on different sentence structures

3.     
Question of
definite and indefinite article.

4.     
Question to
observe the variation in pronunciation of different word.

 

4.1  Questions about
different vocabulary items.

Table 4.1.1

Use of Different vocabulary items

Serial
No

Pakistani
English (PE)

British
English (RP)

01

70%

30%

02

85%

15%

03

71.5%

28.5%

04

61.5%

38.5%

05

50.5%

49.5%

06

60.5%

39.5%

 

Use of different lexical items were presented by question numbers
1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, The researcher used such vocabulary items as station/town
marriage/ wedding, to shift/to  move,
conveyance/ transport / dal / pulses  and
roti / bread. The first word is used in Pakistan English and the second
word is of British standard English. The percentage for vocabulary items is on
70%, 85%, 71.5%, 61.5%, 50.5%, 60.5% respectively and the vocabulary item
(Town, wedding to move transport, pulse only bread) are 30%, 15%, 28.5%, 38.5%,
49.5%, 39.5% respectively.

With the help of this research it is indicated that these words, to
shift conveyance, dal and roti refer to Pakistani English. The respondents
mostly used Pakistani English. These lexical items are used by them in their
written as well as spoken language. Some respondents said that they use it
unconsciously.

4.2 Questions about Different sentence structures

Table 4.2.1

Use of different sentence structures.

  Serial No.

Pakistani
English (PE)

British
English (RP)

01

30.5 %

57%

02

25.5%

70.5%

 

Various sentence structures were presented in question numbers 2
and 6 which were used by the respondents. “PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUE”
tense was used in question number 2 , such as “I have been working here
since 2016″ is the example of British standard English. Where as in
Pakistani English this sentence is used differently, ” I am working here
since 2016.” In the given sentences the used of Pakistani English is 30.5%
while of British standard English is 57% While inquestion No.6 ” He will pas
if he will study hard”  shows
Pakistani English, while in standard English future tense is not used in the
same way as in Urdu. So this sentence would be in British English as: “He
will pas if he studies hard.” As a result, these sentences indicate the
percentage of Pakistani English, 25.5% while of British English is 70.5%. It
can be said that the respondents followed British English in sentence structure
as compared to Pakistani English.

 

4.3 Questions about definite and indefinite Articles,.

Table 4.3.1

Use of definite and indefinite Articles.

Serial No.

Pakistani
English (PE)

British
English (RP)

01

77.5 %

22.5 %

02

55 %

45 %

 

Questions numbers 7,8 indicate the use of articles. The respondents
used less definite article in Pakistani English as compared to British Standard
English.

In Question No. 7 a speaker spoke in this way, “Here is Bunch of
keys” and “Here are bunch of keys”, as compared to the other
sentence. While in Question No.8, the respondents mostly use “Cook fishes in
warm water”, while “Cook the fishes in warm water.” is less used by
the speaker.

To conclude it can be said that mostly university students use less
definite and indefinite articles in written as well as spoken from.

 

4.4 Questions to observe the variation in pronunciation of
different words.

Table 4.4.1

Variation in pronunciation of different words. 

Serial No.

Pakistani
English (PE)

British
English (RP)

01

45%

55%

02

35%

65%

03

70%

30%

04

35%

67%

 

Difference in pronunciation of different words is indicated by
question no 12 to 15. Different words such as petrol Olympics, monarchy
and market were given to the respondents most of them uttered these
words in Pakistani accent while some used British account. 45 % of them
pronounced the word “Petrol” and “Pitarwl” while 55% pronounced
as Petrol when the respondents were asked to pronounce the word “Olympics”
, 35% respondents pronounced it as “Alumpics”, while 65% pronounced it
as “Olympics”. While when the respondents were asked to pronounce the
word “monarchy” 70% respondents pronounced it as “monarchy” while
30% pronounced it as “monarchy” while they pronounced the word “market”  35% respondents pronounced it is
“market”  while 67% pronounced it as “market”.

As a result, the researcher says that Pakistani accent is mostly
used by the university students as compared to British accent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

5.1 Findings

Many decades, English language is used in Pakistan. In 17th century, English language is introduced by
the English people in Pakistan. In present days, English language enjoys

 high status in
Pakistan. In comparison to the other dialects of English language, Pakistani
English considered as a separate dialect. It is considered much closer to the
British standard level. This study is to assess the behaviour

     of
university students towards Pakistani English. To achieve these goals, the
investigator          made a comparison
between Pakistani English and British English. Findings of these results are
following;      

 

·        
   The result of this survey shows that the
respondents use Pakistani English in place of    

                     British English.

·        
The
students of different universities in Pakistan use Pakistani English in place
of British English.

·        
The
results of different respondents show both positive and negative interests
towards Pakistani English.

   

      Recommendations

This study emphasizes on the
attitudes of the college students towards Pakistani English. Some of them are
followed;

·        
The
research can be about the behavior secondary level students towards Pakistani English.

·        
The
research can be about the behavior of intermediate teachers towards Pakistani
variety of English.

·        
It
can be about the attitude of English speech community towards Pakistani English
which are belonging from different areas.

 

Concluding Remarks

English language has been used in Pakistan from many years.
It was considered as a language of English people but now it is known as
language of learning. English language is considered an important way of
communication. Now a day, it got institutional and official position in
Pakistan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                   
              References

Baumghdner,
R.J (1993) The English Language in Pakistan. Oxford University Press.

Al-Tamimi, A.
& Shuib, M. (2009). Motivation and Attitudes rowards  learning English: A study of Petroleum
Engineering undergraduates at hadhramout University Of Science and Technology.

                   GEMA Online Journal of
Language Studies. (p.29-55).

Chalak, A & kassaian, Z (2010) motivation and attitude
of Iranian undergraduate EFL

Students towards learning English. GEMA Online Journal of
Language Studies,

Crismore, A.; Ngeow, K. Y.-H.& Soo, K. –S. (1996).
Attitude toward English in Malaysia. World 
Englishes, (p. 319-335)

 

 

 

Bolton, K. ( 2004). World Englishes. In A. Davies, &
C, Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (p.367-396),

 

De Kadt, E. (1993). Attitudes towards English in South
Africa. World Eglishes ,

 

(p. 311–324).

 

Dewaele, J.-M. (2005). Sociodemographic, psychological and
politico cultural correlates

 

In Flemish student’s attitude
towards French and English. Journal of Multilingual